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20 February 2023, Volume 36 Issue 1
Development of Single Sphere Spectrometer Based on Gold Foils and Research on Spectrometry
XIAO Kaige, LI Wei, JIAO Tingyu, LI Xiaobo, QIN Xi, LI Shiyao, LIU Yuntao
2023, 36(1):  1-8.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.137
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The H-8 horizontal channel of CARR is an experimental channel to provide neutrons, which can provide a stable radiation field. For different neutron experiments, the required neutron energy spectrum shapes are often different, so accurate measurement of neutron energy spectrum is of great significance. A passive single sphere neutron spectrometer with gold foils as thermal neutron detector is developed to measure the neutron energy spectrum of H-8 horizontal channel. The neutron energy response in 10-11-15 MeV is calculated by MCNP and the rationality of the energy response is analyzed. The single sphere spectrometer was tested in the conduit hall of CARR, the activity of each gold foil was measured by high-purity germanium detector, and the experimental data were calculated by UGA (unfolding based on genetic algorithm). The results show that the neutron energy range emitted from the conduit hall is 10-9-10-6 MeV and the single sphere neutron spectrometer can give accurate neutron energy spectrum data, and can be applied to the measurement and research of neutron energy spectrum in H-8 horizontal channel of CARR.
Study on Gamma Ray Shielding Properties of Bismuth Tungstate with Different Morphologies
LI Yong, WANG Guowei, WU Zhengxin, ZHANG Haitao, LIU Guoqing
2023, 36(1):  9-14.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.061
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To prepare excellent radiation protection material, bismuth tungstate nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and polyurethane based bismuth tungstate composites were prepared. The effects of crystal structure and morphology on the gamma ray shielding properties of bismuth tungstate were studied. The results indicated that the pH value of precursor solution had a large effect on the synthesis of bismuth tungstate, orthorhombic Bi2WO6 were obtained under acidic and neutral conditions, and tetragonal Bi0.875W0.125O1.6875 were obtained under strong alkali condition. With the increase of pH value, the morphology of bismuth tungstate changed from flower like microspheres to persimmon like microstructures, and then to randomly stacked nanosheets. It was found that orthorhombic persimmon-like Bi2WO6 showed higher shielding properties to 81 keV gamma rays, whereas tetragonal Bi0.875W0.125O1.6875 showed higher shielding properties to 59.5 and 121.8 keV gamma rays, obvious differences were observed between the mechanical properties of the composites prepared by different crystalline bismuth tungstate. The results of this study provide a reference for the development of new radiation shielding materials with non-toxic, light weight and high efficiency.
Analytical Method of Exhaust Gas from Steam Reforming of Radioactive Waste Oil
GU Wenlu, LIN Li, LIANG Yi, ZHANG Jiaheng, WU Xuan, SHEN Enwei, XIONG Kouhong
2023, 36(1):  15-19.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.069
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This research carries out difficult analysis and practical discussion on the method for exhaust gas analysis of the steam reforming of radioactive organic waste oil. This paper independently designed a detection analysis system suitable for reforming exhaust gas by using buffer tanks, solenoid valves, auxiliary heating equipment, metal sintering filters, vacuum pumps and other devices. The system realizes the stable intake of reforming exhaust gas and online detection and analysis under the condition of negative pressure and high temperature and reduces the influence of moisture and dust in the exhaust gas on detection results and damage to detection instruments. Finally, the result verified the reliability of the exhaust gas analysis method through the experimental data, which provides accurate experimental data and technical input for the next development of engineering prototypes and promotes the transformation from scientific research innovation to engineering practice.
Feasibility Study on Preparation of Photosensitive Resin for 137Cs 3D Printing by Phase Transfer Method
DU Yue, LIN Min, XYU Lijun, SONG Xinpeng, LIU Yuntao, XIA Wen, CHEN Kesheng, YAO Shunhe, LUO Rui, MAO Naqing, ZHU Heng, ZHANG Yuhe
2023, 36(1):  20-28.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.020
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To introduce 3D printing technology into the field of radiation source preparation and make up for the lack of precision special-shaped radiation source preparation technology at home and abroad. The photosensitive resin for 133Cs 3D printing was prepared by studying the phase transfer method and detected by ICP-MS to explore the preparation conditions. Then, the photosensitive resin material for 137Cs 3D printing was prepared and detected by lanthanum bromide detector. The results show that the uneven distribution of cesium in three photosensitive resins for 133Cs 3D printing and 137Cs 3D printing prepared by phase transfer method was less than 5%. As a simple and mild method, phase transfer method can be used to prepare photosensitive resin for 3D printing containing cesium, and has certain universality.
Drying-into-Salt Technology of High Salinity Radioactive Liquid Waste
LUO Feng, WU Guanghui, FAN Jiheng, FAN Chunxin, LI Zhenchen
2023, 36(1):  29-34.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.075
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The radioactive waste treatment has been brought into focus with the rapidly developing of the nuclear industry. Due to the large proportion of volume and radioactivity of radioactive water in radioactive waste, the treatment of radioactive water draws people’s attention in the process of waste minimization. This research has systematically carry out mechanism study, engineering design, device development and performance verification surround the drying-into-salt technology of high salinity radioactive water. The results show that the engineering prototype runs steadily. The speed of drying is about 6-8 L/h, and the product doesn’t contain free water. Meanwhile, the temperature of inside and surface of drum is 100 degree centigrade. The pressure inside the drum locates at 1-2 kPa. This work will provide important reference for the experimental study and device development of drying-into-salt technology of high salinity radioactive water. Also, it will be a great help to follow-up engineering application of this new technology.
Radiation Impact Assessment of the Decommissioning of a City Radioactive Waste Storage Vault
CHEN Chao, SHAO Minggang, CHEN Chunyan, MENG Qingsen, TU Xingming
2023, 36(1):  35-42.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.018
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In order to achieve the goal of unrestricted opening after the decommissioning of city radioactive waste storage vaults, the key problems of radiation impact assessment of the decommission of waste storage vaults were discussed and the radiation impact of personnel and surrounding environment was evaluated in this paper. The polluted area was determined by comparing the source investigation with the implemented control limits. Combined with the background level of local radiation environment and operation history, the pollution causes were analyzed. According to the decommissioning implementation scheme, the production amount of radioactive wastes and the activity level before servicing were obtained. Empirical formulas were used to estimate the external and internal radiation doses of professional personnel, and the public radiation impact was analyzed. The formulation of control limits and the acceptable level of 226Ra in the soil of the decommissioning site were discussed. The radioactive indexes for decommissioning implementation and the suitable sites control limits were selected. The specific measures to minimize waste in decommissioning construction were put forward. The maximum individual dose of decommissioning implementation was 3.9 mSv, which was lower than the dose constraint value 5 mSv. The measured dose was about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the evaluation value. The professional personnel dose in the decommissioning activities met the requirements of the national standard, and the radiation impact of decommissioning was within an acceptable range.
Research on Sequential Measurement Method of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
HU Pan, HE Ming, LI Kangning, YOU Qubo, BAO Yiwen, ZHAO Qingzhang, ZHANG Wenhui, GUO Wei, SHAO Bin
2023, 36(1):  43-48.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.054
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Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technology has been widely applied in many fields due to its high precision and sensitivity. In recent years, with the improvement of AMS technology, the performances of accelerator facilities have been greatly improved, higher stability, better convenience and smaller size. The main work of this paper is based on AMS facility in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), with the terminal voltage of 300 kV. The developed sequential measurement system and method for 14C accurate measurement have been successfully used to this AMS device.
Uncertainty Analysis of Activity Concentration Measurement of Tritium Gas Standard Source
LUO Rui, LIU Yuntao, LIN Min, XU Lijun, MAO Naqing, LI Ming
2023, 36(1):  49-54.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.019
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The value of activity concentration of tritium standard source is very important for the monitor and calibration of tritium. The length compensation method is applied for measuring activity of tritium. The analysis and uncertainty evaluation results of measuring uncertainty is given based on internal inflatable proportional counter The uncertainty of the activity concentration of tritium mainly came from the statistical fluctuation of background and count, volume measurement, dead time correction, wall effect correction, and measurement repeatability and stability. The results show that the standard uncertainty of synthesis is 1.6% for 7×103 Bq/L tritium gas.
Design of Compact Shielding Device and Irradiator Based on 241Am-Be Neutron Source
HE Dedong, GONG Ke, CHEN Siyuan, SHI Guangyu, JING Shiwei
2023, 36(1):  55-61.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.058
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The 241Am-Be neutron source is widely used in experimental research. Proper shielding needs to be designed to protect experimenters from neutron and gamma radiation. The energy spectrum distribution and dose value of neutrons transmitted through different materials were calculated by the Monte Carlo method to optimize the type and thickness of each layer of shielding material. A compact shielding device for 241Am-Be neutron source is designed. The device protection adopts a four-layer combination of tungsten+polyethylene+borated polyethylene+stainless steel. The dose equivalent rate H*(10) around the outer surface is lower than 10 μSv/h, which meets the radiation protection requirements. The fluence distribution of thermal neutron, epithermal neutron and fast neutron in the device is studied to determine the best opening position of the fast neutron and thermal neutron output channel of this device. When the irradiation device simultaneously opens the fast neutron and thermal neutron channels for experimental testing, it is necessary to set up a control area with a distance greater than 130 cm to ensure the safety of the worker.
Preparation of 18F- Labeled Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen JK-PSMA-7 and Its Preliminary PET/CT Imaging
YAN Min, QIN Zhixing, RU Huibin, SONG Tingrui, HAO Xinzhong, LIU Wen, REN Guodong, LI Sijin, WU Zhifang, DIAO Haipeng
2023, 36(1):  62-68.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.002
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A novel 18F- labeled prostate specific membrane antigen 18F-JK-PSMA-7 was synthesized, its biodistribution in mice was determined and its preliminary PET/CT imaging was studied. 18F-JK-PSMA-7 was synthesized through 4 steps of nucleophilic substitution、acid hydrolysis、high performance liquid chromatography separation and solid phase extraction. Its quality and in vitro stability were determined, and lipid-water partition coefficient was calculated. in addition, its biological safety and biological distribution characteristics were evaluated through animal experiments. PET/CT imaging was performed on 1 healthy volunteer and 3 prostate cancer patients. The synthesis time of 18F-JK-PSMA-7 was 45 min, and the synthesis yield was (31.0±2.5)% (without attenuation correction, n=3), the radiochemical purity was greater than 99%, and other quality control results met the clinical requirements. In vitro stability of the drug was good, and the radiochemical purity was still greater than 95% after 3 half-lives at room temperature, its lipid-water partition coefficient logP was calculated to be equal to -3.56±0.13. Biodistribution experiments of drug showed that it had good stability in vivo, and it was barely concentrated in muscle and bone at the time points measured, but the drug was highly concentrated in the bladder, which proved that it was metabolized by the urinary system. PET/CT imaging of 1 healthy volunteer and 3 prostate cancer patients showed that 1 healthy volunteer had physiologically high uptake mainly in salivary gland, lacrimal gland, submandibular gland, liver, spleen, intestine, bladder. 18F-JK-PSMA-7 was concentrated in Prostate lesions and metastases of 3 patients with prostate cancer with the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of 54.82. It can be seen that the new prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging agent 18F-JK-PSMA-7 has high synthetic yield、high radiochemical purity and stable quality, and has the potential to become a new drug for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The Establishment of the Enterprise Internal Control Quality Standard for No-carrier-added Lutetium [177Lu] Chloride Solution
LUO Tianwei, CHEN Mengyi, WANG Chunlin, SUN Xiangmin, YANG Liu, WANG Xiaoming, KONG Xiaohui, WU Fuhai, HUANG Xiaoyan, QIU Yanli, ZHANG Yun, LI Hongyu
2023, 36(1):  69-76.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.030
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To establish the stable and reliable analytical methods and the enterprise internal control quality standard for no-carrier-added lutetium [177Lu] chloride solution which is a key material of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, the radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, radioactivity concentration, element impurities, endotoxin, etc. of lutetium [177Lu] chloride solution were tested, and these analytical methods were verified. Three batches of lutetium [177Lu] chloride solution were tested, and the results met the requirements. The radiochemical purity were greater than 99%, 176Yb and other γ impurities were not detected in radionuclidic purity test, the contents of impurity elements met the corresponding requirement, bacterial endotoxin was less than 2.00 EU/mL, the main γ energy peaks of 177Lu were presented at 0.113 MeV and 0.208 MeV, and the radioactivity concentration was 90.0%-110.0% of the concentration declared on the label. The internal control quality standard was established based on the development and verification of the analytical methods and the test results of three batches. The analytical methods and internal control quality standard of no-carrier-added lutetium [177Lu] chloride solution have been successfully established, which laid a foundation for the preparation and translational researches of 177Lu therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.
Review and Suggestions on Quality Inspection of Fludeoxyglucose [18F] Injection Prepared by Medical Institutions
JIA Juanjuan, ZHANG Wenzai, GONG Quansheng, SUN Deyang, SHI Yaqin, HUANG Haiwei
2023, 36(1):  77-82.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.065
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The quality of Fludeoxyglucose [18F] injection prepared by medical institutions from 2016 to 2021 was reviewed, in order to provide reference for improving the quality control level and operation standard of Fludeoxyglucose [18F] injection prepared by medical institutions. According to the results analyzed by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia from 123 batches of Fludeoxyglucose [18F] injection prepared by 38 medical institutions, the unqualified rate of the products was 14.6%, and the unqualified items were mainly due to pH value and residual solvents. By analyzing the causes, preparation and quality control process of the samples, it is considered that the main reason is the lack of quality control awareness of the production unit, and also there are problems such as incomplete quality control inspection items and nonstandard inspection operations of the production unit. It is suggested that medical institutions should strengthen the capability building of preparation and quality control process.
Production of Carrier Added 177Lu in HFETR
HU Yingjiang, WANG Lei, WU Jianrong, LI Bo, LUO Ning, CHEN Yunming, ZENG Junjie, SUN Zhizhong, JIA Zhijun, ZHANG Jinsong
2023, 36(1):  83-88.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.132
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As an ideal medical theranostic radionuclide, 177Lu is widely applied in many cancer diagnostics and therapies. The carrier added 177Lu has the advantages of simple radiochemical process and high irradiation yield. Herein, this paper conducted the research on the preparation of carrier added 177Lu by thermal neutron irradiation of 176Lu in the high flux engineering test reactor (HFETR). This work irradiated natural lutetium and enriched 176Lu. As a result, 177Lu with specific activity of 0.87 Ci/mg and 177mLu content of 0.009% was produced by 13 days irradiation of natural Lu at thermal neutron flux of 2×1014 n·cm-2·s-1; 177Lu with specific activity of 24.9 Ci/mg and 177mLu content of 0.02% was produced by 28 days irradiation of enriched 176Lu (86.5%) at thermal neutron flux of 1×1014 n·cm-2·s-1; 177Lu with specific activity of 25.76 Ci/mg and 177mLu content of 0.002% was produced by 5 days irradiation of enriched 176Lu (86.5%) at thermal neutron flux of 2×1014 n·cm-2·s-1; and 177Lu with specific activity of 28.3 Ci/mg and 177mLu content of 0.009% was produced by 12 days irradiation of enriched 176Lu (86.5%) at thermal neutron flux of 2×1014 n·cm-2·s-1. Among them, both 177Lu products using enriched 176Lu targets meet the domestic group requirements with specific activity more than 20 Ci/mg and 177mLu/177Lu less than 0.07%. Overall, carrier added 177Lu which can meet the standards can be prepared by irradiation of enriched 176Lu in HFETR. It is expected to realize localized production of carrier added 177Lu according to market demand and promote the domestic researches in 177Lu nuclear medicine applications.
Preparation of Large Size 14C Planar Source
CHEN Kesheng, XIA Wen, LUO Rui, YAO Yanling, CHEN Yizhen, LIN Min, XU Lijun, ZHANG Weidong
2023, 36(1):  89-93.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2021.youxian.109
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The purpose of the work is to research the planar source of 14C with large size by the absorbability of the anodizing membrane. The adsorption of 14C on the anodizing membrane with thickness of 4 to 12 μm were investigated. The adsorption of 14C and the uniformity of the planar source were investigated on the volume of 14C solution. The specific activity of 14C was investigated on adsorption of 14C. The fastness, the uniformity and the surface emission rate of the planar source of 14C were measured. The result shows that the uniformity of the planar source (100 mm×150 mm) of14C is precede 10%. The plateau length is 400 V, the slope of the plateau is 0.3% per 100 V. The threshold correction is 0.2%. The uncertainty of 14C source measurement is 2% (k=2). The technical parameters of the developed plane source 14C can meet the requirements of relevant standards.
The Preparation Process of 63Ni Source for Poison Alarm
GAO Yan, LIU Mingyang, REN Chunxia, WANG Nian, FU Kexin, CHEN Yiting
2023, 36(1):  94-98.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.001
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Ion migration spectrometry technology is an effective method for rapid detection of chemical warfare agents in the field. 63Ni source for poision alarm is a common ionization source because of its advantages of no maintenance and safe use. In this paper, the preparation method of 63Ni source for poision alarm was studied, and the activity measuring device and electroplating device were designed. The most important is to study the parameters of electroplating process, so as to determine the best electroplating conditions are temperature 20 ℃, current density 20 mA/cm2, pH 2-3, electroplating time 10 min. Finally, parallelism experiment and fastness test were carried out. The results show that the qualified rate of primary electroplating of the radioactive source prepared by this method can reach 100% and the coating and nickel sheet are firmly bonded. The radioactive source prepared by this method can meet the requirements of ion migration spectrometry technology.
The Progress of Absolute Measurement Methods of the Intensity of 125I Brachytherapy Seeds
LIU Chuanfeng, LI Dehong, LIU Yuntao, WANG Hongyu, HUANG Jianwei, SONG Mingzhe, WEI Kexin, ZHANG Jian
2023, 36(1):  99-108.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.009
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Brachytherapy is an effective treatment for cancer. 125I seeds are widely used for the low dose rate brachytherapy, which has the advantages of short half-life, easy to make microstructure and easy protection. Medical physicists make treatment plans mainly based on the formula of the dose distribution of particle sources around tissues. The quantity characterizing the intensity of seeds has changed from the quantity of apparent activity to the air kerma strength. In order to measure the intensity of the source accurately, it has become a hot issue in international research. This paper introduces the development of dose distribution formula of 125I seeds in tissue. The status of absolute measurement of particle source intensity, such as air-kerma strength, reference air-kerma rate and absorbed dose to water is analyzed. And the primary standard and measurement method of brachytherapy seeds are summarized. In our country, the quantity of 125I brachytherapy seeds used for the treatment increases. The relevant domestic standards was imperfection. And there is a lack of measurement technology and the methods of the air kerma strength of 125I seeds. In view of the current situation in China, some suggestions on the brachytherapy seeds intensity measurement are put forward to realize the source intensity transmission and traceability in China.
Research Development of 14C Isotope
ZHANG Peng, XU Zhihong, LI Changda, CHENG Wei, ZHENG Yi, SHENG Jiayu, GUI Yuan
2023, 36(1):  109-116.  DOI: 10.7538/tws.2022.youxian.004
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As an important radioactive tracer, 14C has been widely used in many fields, such as biomedicine, agriculture, geology, environment etc, due to its ability to reveal the distribution, metabolic mechanism and migration path of the substances. In recent years, the demand for 14C-labeled compounds has continued to grow, and its application field has been expanded. This paper summarizes the sources, preparation, separation and purification methods of 14C isotopes. Meanwhile, this paper reviews the preparation, structural identification and application in related research fields of 14C labeled compounds, and emphatically discussed the development status and trend of 14C isotope separation and purification technology. It is hoped that recyclable utilization of 14C resources can be realized with solving the pollution of 14C emissions, which will further promote the development of 14C application.