同位素 ›› 2009, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (4): 237-246.DOI: 10.7538/tws.2009.22.04.0237

• 概述 • 上一篇    下一篇

裂变放射性核素90Sr、137Cs分离的研究进展

张华明1,2;李兴亮1,2;杨玉山2;钟文彬1,2   

  1. 1. 中国工程物理研究院 核物理与化学研究所,四川 绵阳 621900;
    2. 西南科技大学 核废物与环境安全国防重点学科实验室,四川 绵阳 621010
  • 收稿日期:2009-02-26 修回日期:2009-04-17 出版日期:2009-11-20 发布日期:2009-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 张华明

Advance of Separation Technologies for Fission Nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs

ZHANG Hua-ming1,2;LI Xing-liang1,2;YANG Yu-shan2;ZHONG Wen-bin1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Nuclear Physics & Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China ;
    2. Defense Key Laboratory of Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
  • Received:2009-02-26 Revised:2009-04-17 Online:2009-11-20 Published:2009-11-20
  • Contact: 张华明 ZHANG Hua-Ming

摘要:

对近年来裂片核素90Sr、137Cs的分离技术如沉淀法、萃取法、无机离子交换法等研究的进展进行评述,同时展望了可能潜在的高放废物(液)处理技术路线。对汽液矿化处理90Sr、137Cs废液做了简单介绍。新型高效萃取剂冠醚(DtBuCH18C6)和杯冠芳烃(BOBCalixC6)对90Sr和137Cs离子有比较好的选择性;绿色萃取技术如离子液体萃取技术、超临界流体萃取技术也在90Sr、137Cs萃取分离中得到应用。晶态钛硅酸盐(CST)和金属硫化物(KMS-1)在碱性条件下对137Cs和90Sr有比较高的选择性。汽液矿化处理能将含有90Sr、137Cs的低放废液转化成稳定的硅铝酸矿物。虽然理论上能有效地将90Sr和137Cs从高放废液中分离出来,但是高放乏燃料的最终处置技术还有待进一步探索。

关键词: 裂片核素, 90Sr, 137Cs, 分离技术

Abstract:

The progress of separation technologies for fission nuclides 90Sr and 137Cs, including precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchang method, were reviewed. The prospects of disposal technology for high-level waste were also discussed. Crown ether (DtBuCH18C6) and calixarene-crown ether (BOBCalixC6) possess highly selectivity for 90Sr and 137Cs respectively in the processing of liquid-liquid extraction; ionic liquids extraction and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology could be applied to separating 90Sr and 137Cs from high-level waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and metal sulfide (KMS-1) have higher selectivity for 90Sr and 137Cs separately in alkaline condition. The mineralized steam reforming process could be used to immobilize 90Sr and 137Cs into a stable aluminasilicate mineral solid in the low-active waste solution phases. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be separated from high-level waste efficiently in theory, there is still a long way to be achieved for final disposal of spent fuel waste.

Key words: fission nuclides, 90Sr, 137Cs, separation technology